Monday, February 29, 2016

1941-1944 SIEGE OF LENINGRAD: The Missing and Killed

Memorial Book, “1941-1944 Blockade”

“ The Siege of Leningrad, also known as the Leningrad Blockade, was a prolonged military operation undertaken by the German Army against Leningrad (historically and currently known as St. Petersburg). The siege started on 8 September 1941, when the last road to the city was severed….” (  )

On this Russian language site you can do a search for those who may have been missing or killed during the siege of Leningrad. 

To do so, first it is necessary to convert the desired name(s) to Russian Cyrillic. (not every name is convertible)---you can use a translator such as Google Translate to do so.

Next enter the Cyrillic version of the name into the search box. ( I have translated the page from Russian to English on Google Chrome) & click “search”.

Sunday, February 28, 2016

TARNOW RECORDS: Legal Proceedings #2

TARNOW RECORDS: Legal Proceedings #2

The following is information  from: “Selected Records from the Polish State Archives in Tarnow Branch, 1931-1980 (bulk 1931-1945)”--USHMM

 Reel 1
p. 3-11

call # PT 45 etc.  Public prosecutor's office in Tarnów; dossiers of investigations and interrogations of the regional prosecutors. 1931.

Legal proceedings against Saloman Leufeit for incident in the
synogogue. Disposition 23 May 1932: discontinuance of
investigation no proof of transgression.

Proceedings against Juda Gruber for incident in the synogogue.
Disposition 26 April 1932: discontinuance of investigation, no proof
of transgression.

Legal proceedings against Michats Abraham Brand for procuring
illegal documents (military). Disposition: discontinuance‐‐faked

AKTS of the prosecuting attorney of Tarnow:

Legal proceedings against D. Zygmunt Silbiger (ironic the district
chief was D. Zygmunt Döllinger, president of the Jewish commune)
for some financial discrepancies in the Kahal. (Looks like the
members of the town Kahal were getting money personally and had
others get money for them for they did not want to be known as
not having money and therefore unable to get credit). Disposition:
discontinuance, accused cleared of any wrongdoings.

Legal proceedings against Szimon Appel, janitor manager of Jewish
cemetery who was supposed to appropriate funds and goods.
Disposition: discontinuance no proof of guilt.

Investigation of robbery at the Jewish Congregation offices
destruction of two fireproof safes and robbery of some thousand
zlotys and jewelry. Criminals worked in gloves. Three real known
burglars were arrested who had alibis for the time of the crime.
Another Benjamin Mlyniec was arrested for this burglary. 29 Sept

Proceeding in case of antiJewish actions in _oniowa, district
Brzesko. Accused: Józef Gurgula and friends. Disposition no
further actions; not enough grounds to be guilty, according 251250
article claimant: Helena Grunberger. The village representative
Gurgol was supposed to invite the community to boycott the

C: Case of Chaim Münz from Jadowiniki accusing unknown
perpetrators of destroying three windows during the night of 11
Nov. 1933. Investigations showed that the act was a part of anti
Jewish activities by the members of the "National Party".
Disposition discontinuance; not enough grounds to arrest
perpetrators (unknown) included "Nowiny Poranne" the morning
news leaflet, antiJewish Jadowniki.

Case of David Bierenbaum (accused of abuse of voting rights within
the Jewish Community Council). Accused of trying to influence the
outcome of the election to the Jewish community representatives
in Tarnów by pretending to be Bernard Bieber (who was a
registered voter). Discontinuance: objection overruled.

Case of Dawid Birnbaum and Henryk Heller. Case of the periodical
"Goniec", 8 July 1934 and the article: Did the District Attorney Put
his Hand to the Kahal Elections. Election Abuse. Disposition:
discontinuance, no proof.

Case of Abraham Goldman, the head and managing officer of the Kahal of Tarnów. Chaim Eisen wants Goldman suspended from office in the Kahal of Tarnów. Disposition: no proof of mismanagement or injustices.

Case of the Jewish Macabi organization in Brzesko. Broken windows, damage 5 zł. Investigation showed that the deed was probably the work of the youth section of the National Party in Brzesko as antiJewish propaganda. Further investigation pending.

Case of Stanislaw Szczeklik (law student) alleged antiSemite seen
by Izaak Einspruch with book and antiJewish leaflets; accused
denied the deed, investigating officer writes that it had to be
Szczeklik who strew the leaflets on the road to Pilzno from
Szczegocie. Discontinuance: no witnesses of actual dissemination
of leaflets.

12 October 1935. Investigation of Fryderyk Jungerman in the case
of Growski of harming Berta Appelbaum (17 Nov. 1933) and for
giving false evidence in her case against Stanislaw Gilowski, sent to
the Court of Appeals in Kraków.

Case of Edward Appelbaum and Berta Appelbaum (widow of the
attorney in Tarnów) against Fryderek Jungerman reviewed by the
court of appeals in Kraków. Court refused to review the case of
Berta Appelbaum against Stanislaw Gilowski who sold some
buildings belonging to the Appelbaums, F. Jungerman, and others.

Case of Pinkas Itzkowitz from Szczurow against Józef Zydron and Jan
Nesolowski for insulting him at the police station in Jan. 1944 by
saying, "What do you want here, you filthy Jew, go to Palestine to
look for your rights." The article on which rests the accusation of
appropriate execution of duty is not applicable. Threats of beatings
the plaintiffs were not substantiated. Pinkas had to pay a fine of 5
zł. for breaking of public peace and is appealing the fine. On 23 Jan.
1934 he was attacked by a few students in Tarnow, he called for
help and was taken to the station for deposition and there insulted by _ydron and Wesolowski as reported above. Witnesses can't remember what was said; Court wants Pinkas to testify under oath.

Case of David Freidreich who on 25 Nov. 1935, falsely accused
Wilhelm Waldemar Brand of unlawfully demanding the sum of 400
zł. for entering the children of Freidreich into the Kahal register of
vital statistics. Brand reported in 1934 Freidreich for not entering
his four children in his registry, as demanded by law. The court
found for the accused and freed him from fines. Freidreich
appealed and won.

Case of Józef Zawrzykraj who publically threatened to bodily harm
on 2 Apr. 1935 in Rzachowa Leopold Osterwiel and other Jews.
Witnesses prevented bloodshed. He denies inciting others to
battery and murder. Arrested; prosecution started; one year given.
Case of Jan Nowak accused of antiJewish activities. deposition:
home arrest; reporting two weeks to police in Zakliczyn, later
released. Plaintiff: Sitka Steinerowa in Weslow. Accused warned
about further notes and threats to Steinerowa. Witness: Solomon
Korn who brought the leaflets to the police.

Case of Jan Adamik, and others arrested for breaking windows in
the house of Feinwelneller, Józef Zicer and Chaim Heller on 13 July
1935 in Uszwa. "The perpetrators were throwing stones for a joke,
do not admit to breaking windows." Others arrested: Władysław
Mierzwa, Michał Mendel, Bronistal Ciesca, Jan Kotarba. The
accused later released. No known lives were threatened‐‐some of
the accused were juveniles (released to parents); others were
denied release from jail.
Reel 2
p. 17-21

Case: Dr. Henryk Blumenfeld accused of wanting 500 zł. for winning
the case of the plaintiff, Stanis_aw Stwarz of charging too much for
services not rendered. Date: 6 Aug 1936. Disposition: petition for
discontinuance granted. 

Case: AntiJewish excesses, 6 Dec 1936 14 Jan. 1937. Plaintiff Wolf
Adler wounded by a knife of an unknown perpetrator from a group
of persons running and shouting "Beat the Jew" (according to
witness Izrael Mendel Sauerstrom. No disposition in the folder).

Case: Embezzlement of 200 zł. by Jakob Killig from the synagogue in
Tarnów. Date: 24 Aug 1936 31 Oct 1936. Plaintiff: Association
cantor Markus Dawid Kauftoel. No disposition included in file.

Andrzej Nowicki, Czchów accused by Natman Plachier and Gerszon
Schreiber (on 2930 Jan. 1936) of distribution of antiJewish leaflets
"Don't buy in Jewish stores," etc. released the possession of leaflets
not punishable. A. Nowicki didn't know that the offering of hate
literature was unlawful and punishable. The flier shows a Polish
farmer with a wheel barrow loaded with Jews and taking them to a
road leading to Palestine and words, "Poland for Poles." Another
"Wakeup Poles, Support the Weekly NDP, The people's defense."

AntiJewish excesses. Suspect: Gustaw Pawlik and companions
(Czub and Malinowski) from Wesołow. Plaintifs: Józef Kokosza
(stones), Moses Unger (cane) for bodily harm (6 Aug 1936);
arrested 14 Aug 1936. Confirmed, release from jail 31 Aug 1936.
Discontinued 30 Sept 1936: no proof of guilt(?); ordered to destroy
the stone that hit Komosza. Petition to change arrest to fine of 75
zł. 75zł. returned after the order of discontinuance.

Case: The Jewish religious community in Ropczyce accused of
beating four women, Gizela, Sara, Marja, and Traua Reh with the
office of the Kahal in Popczype by six kahal members (including the
rabbi). The women were accusing the kahal members of abuse of
authority and collecting. (1 Jan. 1936 it was decided to plant three
palm trees for the deceased Marshall Pilsudski for 30 zł. in
Palestine). Date: 10 Jan. 30 Apr. 1936. Disposition:
discontinuance, no proof of wrongdoing.

Railroad accident or robbery and antisemitic attack. Reported by
the Jewish hospital: plaintiff is Izak Ger, hurt by unknown
perpetrators in the railroad station in Sedziszów on 7 Nov. 1936
(between Tarnów and Rzeszów) and then thrown off the train and
deported to the Jewish hospital in Lwów with contusions having
first been seen by Dr. Goldberg in S_diszów. Assertion not
substantiated by passengers. Deposition: discontinuance, 7 Nov.
1936 23 Dec 1936.

AntiJewish excesses. Wounding of Jakob Ships and Pesah Ships by
Bełzowski Kryczka Nowak. On 16 May 1937 people returning for a
celebration arranged by the National Party accosted Jews. One
soldier among them threatened them with his bayonet.
Discontinuance: witness retracts information about perpetrators
who denied any wrongdoing. 8 July 7 Aug 1937. A note for a
witness Józef Radecki writes to Mr. Miller about the attack.

PT123  AntiJewish excesses. Case: breaking windows in the synagogue in
Ciŧkowice on 14 Sept 1937. Victim: Mozes Rigelhaupt.
Perpetrators unknown. Disposition: discontinuance, no
perpetrators caught. 16 17 Sep 1938.
Stopping of train in the station of Słotwina Brzesko by Jews who
were attacked by unknown perpetrators. Disposition:
discontinuance, 28 Aug 1937.

PT132 II Ds  971/37   Plaintiffs: Srul Fenichlar and Zak Lustgarten was refused entry to a place of worship. Discontinuance: house of worship was in a private home not a public place of worship. 13 18 Apr. 1938.

Antisemitic propaganda in Tarnów, 26 28 Oct 1938. Attack on a
teacher by Jews. Supposedly a Jewish thief wanted to steal a school
bag for a child. He was caught. Teacher wanted to deliver him to
the police and was attacked by other Jews. She was rescued by a
policeman. Poster: under a caricature of an old Jew, Martin
Luther's antisemitic message underneath antiJewish "poem" about
the reason for not buying in Jewish stores. The police in Tarnów
negates the receipt of any such postcard, and of any such an
incident in the garden, and having saved any teacher. Disposition:
discontinuance, teacher and bag fictitious; antiJewish propaganda.

Case: Moses Keimer, łabno, 4 30 Apr. 1938. Allegedly struck
Meilech Salpeter, Jewish chairman of the election committee to
Kahal and pushed Jan Starzyk who was supervising the elections.
The accused, a small thief, without steady domicile did not appear
for trial on 3 Oct. Trial postponed. Discontinuance.

Rabbinate in Dabrowo case concerning unwritten rabbinical laws.
22 Mar. 1 Apr. 1938. Nuchym Weidenfeld and others, suspected
by plaintiff Gustawa Krischerowa of help to commit bigamy with
Perla Sussman. The plaintiff appeals the discontinuance of
investigation of the rabbis identification Sehman and Nuchym
Weidenfld. Her complaint was not thoroughly investigated. The
accused issued her husband Izek Krischer a document called
"Heter" so he could marry in secret another woman without being
divorced from the plaintiff. Her husband lost all processes in Nowy
Sacz Rabbinate where she lived. They dared to act against state
and rabbinical laws. The plaintiff is without any means of support
for herself and her two minor children. Disposition:
discontinuance, the issuance of "Heter" is no crime. Poor Lustawa
lost: Torah does not forbid more than one wife.

Case: breaking windows in Jewish homes by members of the
"National Party" on 6 July 1938 in Biadoliny Radłowskie, district
Brzesko, 7 24 July 1938. Plaintiff: Dawid Korngold, and Liba
Korngold, Moses Bergman. In Apr. 1938 the same perpetrators
damaged windows, roof, and shutters. Five perpetrators were
identified by the victims. Disposition: to persecute for attempt to
harm life no more.

Case Abraham Goldman and other Dębica. Embezellment in the
Kahal. 12 May 3 July 1938. Plaintiff: M. Rozen, 14 Apr. 1938.
Disposition: discontinuance the accusers unknown in D_bica

Antisemitic excesses in Bobowa. 4 5 Apr. 1939. Breaking windows
in the house of rabbi Benzion Halberstam on 3 Mar. 1939 (40 zł.
damage) as revenge for supporting the rival of the perpetrators
during elections to the Community Council in Bobowa. Disposition:
discontinuance, no perpetrators identified.

Cyrla Scheinberg and Isak Kleingut accused Stanisław Wąsik,
postman of picketing their store during duty hours in Cieźkowice.
Wąsik is suing the captioned persons. In case of W_sik:
discontinuance. In case of Cyrla: discontinuance. 17 30 April

Case: plaintif Isak Mayerhof and others broke windows during anti
Jewish excesses on 3 May 1939. Discontinuance: perpetrators not
found. 11 31 May 1939.

PT154  Mordek Maichel Salpeter: embezellment, łabno (100 zł.) accused by
Bóroniec, Jan. Report that the lawyer Salpeter left _abno, direction
east in September. 25 July 8 Aug 1939. Salpeter is not found.

PT154Ds  209/39  Bencjan Schiffman and Schiffman and Schlesinger, Tarnów accused by the City of Gda_sk, Danzig in 1930 of reckless wrong,  causing bankruptcy. 1930.

Reel 3
p. 21-25

PT31 U/70/30 Case: Chicorymills "Kolb" and others via Danzig (Gdańsk) municipal Court, 17 Feb. 1930. Benzion Schiffs Mendel Schlesinger, Tarnów, bankruptcy. Testimony of witnesses Bister Rössler, Richter Abraham Kronman, Hans Berghäwer, ABraham Grschebib. Owed in 1929 monies to different German firms in Gdańsk. Bought commodities. Disposition: discontinuence. Above mixed up with report on UNRRA shipments from Gdańsk on 9 Nov. 1946 to Skawina bei Kraków vie Polish Railroad. Bags of coffee (1900 tons). Receipt acknowledged.

PT32 NDs 5002/9 Kahau in Bolesławie bei Dabrowa against Sil Silber (5 Dec 1929) took Torah home because being sick, could not go to the synagogue to pray. Disposition: discontinuance, extenuating circumstances. 13 Jan. 1932 14 Feb. 1932.

478/30 Jewish sportsclub "Makrabeusz" in Tarnów against Henryk Multer,
who sold the club's equipment without consulting the members.
Disposition: discontinuence. 17 June 1928 4 June 1930.

PT35 Kahau in Dębica against Abraham Goldman. Falsification of voting
lists. 1 July 30 Nov. 1930. Disposition: discontinuance; no proof of

Ids 973/31 Jan Bielatowicz and Co. Teodor Mester. Alojzy Kuta accused (6 July  1931) of intrusion of forcing Emilio Colle to remove photograph of religion class with professor Fenichl from the ice cream parlor window and of starting fight with Jewish men: Eljasz Salpeter, Klein Wolf, Wm. Groszów, Anschel Isler and Michal Dienterfass, and causing a crowd of 500 persons around public building. (There is a
note concerning the theft of a watch belonging to Dawid Kleinkändler. He left the watch on the tennis court and found it on the bench.) Discontinuance: M. Colle willingly took off the Zionist group picture. 16 26 June 1931.

Gölzel Birbaum against Juda Gruber, representative of the
synagogue "revolt" in the Synagogue in Bolesławie disturbing and
hampering members of Jewish congregation in the reading of the
Torah. 22 Aug 2 Sept 1931. Discontinuance: accused was calling
the noise makers to order.

Minister of Finance, Tarnów. Business Swindle: defendant Samuel
Engelhardt to the detriment of Amalia Tertilowa's promissory
notes. 2 June 28 Dec 1933. Deposition: six months in jail, three
years of loss of public rights; half given amnesty, fined 60 zł.
Exception from seizure of furniture belonging to the brother of
Samuel. The whole process discontinued because the defendant
has no means to pay the court fine. Furniture and silver objects
were auctioned. 5 Jan. 1933.

Plaintiff: the Polish Republic. Defendent: Józef Gadzia_a from
Szczucin for resisting arrest and wounding the policeman Franciszek
Biernat who was defending vendors in the marketplace from
antisemitic excesses of Gadziała and companions. Gadziała hit
Rojza Klein on the head, destroyed stands, etc. 13 18 Aug 1936.
Disposition: reduced sentence of 12 months. The others were fired
earlier, some not found at all.

PT208 W 1423/36 Plaintiff: Polish Republic defending the Jewish Religious Commune
in Ropczycz. Defendant Birnbaum Gitta and eight others. On 2 Jan.
1936, forced entrance, demolition of and destruction of the office
of the Jewish commune as protest against execution of dues not
affordable especially to the defendant. Deposition: six months in
jail, four acquitted

Pt210 W2024-2028/36 AntiJewish excesses in Skrzeszów. Defendent: Jan Kozioł and five companions 17 July 1937 stole bricks from public works and
damaged the house of Samuel and Józef Hirsch (windows, curtains)
and attacked policemen arresting them. Deposition: six weeks in
jail. 6 Aug 1937.

PT226 W/216/89 Defendant: Bulaga Franciszek, from Dąbrówka Tuchowska, was
sentenced by Polish Court to 3.50 zł fine and on 2 Jan. 1941 he is
freed from the fine on order from the Tarnów district. Execution
becuase he caused public disturbance by standing in front of a
Jewish store committed immoral act of preventing people from
entering the store of Hindla Eilbaum. Sentence: one day in jail or
52 zł fine. Sentenced again to two days in jail for ridiculing buyers
and agitating against Jewish merchants.

PT227 1983/38 AntiJewish excesses in Wola Żelichowska on defendants Józef Boduch, Wojciech, Dudek, Wiktoria Dudek. Pushing Szymon Issler
under a willow tree and threatening to hang him. Refusing arrest
and insulting policement for protecting Jews and not Poles.

W1162/39 Investigation started Dec 1935 of Chaim Braun and Samuel Braun, tailors who sold the business in Tarnów and left without paying
their debts. Wrote checks that bounced. Five weeks in jail. July