Wednesday, July 10, 2013


In December 1804, Jews from the Russian Empire were required, by decree, to adopt a hereditary surname. By 1850 in Poland, registered names could no longer be changed, even if the individual's religion changed; this included using an alternative Russian version. Citizens were permitted name changes only after the Russian Revolution.(

Zalman Shklyar, on his Russian language site at, offers 60+ pages of "Surnames from Kremenets Vital Records, Hebrew and Russian and Their Transliterations". The names are both handwritten and printed.